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Cognitive deficits in alcohol dependence—A case–control analytical study

 Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Suprakash Chaudhury,
Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_921_21

Background: Use and abuse of alcohol is well known. Its abuse, predominantly its dependence, can cause medical, psychological, and social issues. Excessive alcohol intake over time is linked to cognitive problems, including memory loss. Excessive alcohol use has been linked to significant cognitive deficits that can last even after the person stops drinking. Executive functioning impairments are most likely to impact rehabilitation outcomes in people with cognitive impairment. Aim: To study the cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence and comparing with healthy individuals. Methods: An observational, analytical case–control study was done on 30 alcohol-dependent patients after stabilization and 25 healthy individuals from July 2019 to July 2021 in a tertiary care center in Pune; all subjects after diagnosis were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Stroop Test, and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). Results: The mean score on MMSE of the case group was 28.60 and the controls—29.72. The mean score on FAB of the case group was 16.45 and the controls—17.4. The mean score on BIS of the case group was 16.45 and in control 17.4. Stroop Effect score of the case group was 187.16 seconds and in control it was 146.92 seconds, all being statically significant in comparison. On the WCST, all the findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Long-term alcohol consumption affects executive functions considerably. The current study showed significant cognitive deficits in individuals with alcohol dependence mainly in executive functions, working memory, and high impulsiveness.

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