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Pattern of congenital birth defects at a tertiary care center in South India; A facility-based cross sectional study

1 Department of OBG, ESICMC and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Comunity Medicine, ESICMC and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Vedavathy Nayak,
Gurudev, No. 6, 1st Main, Laxmanappa Nagar, M L A Layout, R M V 2nd Stage, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjdrdypu.mjdrdypu_59_22

Background: The prevalence and the pattern of birth defects help in devising strategies to reduce the burden of preventable birth defects. The study aimed to find out the pattern of various congenital anomalies in babies born at ****** & ****** ********* and to identify the associated risk factors, if any. Material and Methods: This hospital-based observational study was conducted in the Department of OBG during the period from 2016 to 2019. The data were collected from records and history taken from the antenatal patients with diagnosis of congenital abnormalities delivering at ****** & ***** ******. Babies born were also assessed for congenital anomalies. Details of maternal age, parity, consanguinity, occupation, and maternal complications like diabetes were collected. The nature and severity of congenital abnormalities were recorded. Results: Out of total 11,469 deliveries in the study period, 77 babies were born with congenital anomalies (Prevalence 0.67%). The most common congenital anomalies involved the craniospinal system (53.2%), followed by the musculoskeletal system (19.5%). Multiple anomalies were present in 14.3% children. Anencephaly was the most common CNS anomaly. A history of abortions was present in 26% of women carrying anomalous fetuses. Majority of the anomalies were detected within 24 weeks of gestation (54.5%). A past h/o anomalous fetus or intrauterine fetal demise was present in 7% women. Conclusions: Our study observed that previous h/o abortions, history of consanguineous marriage, diabetes mellitus, and previous h/o anomalous fetus/IUD are prevalent among the women with anomalous babies in the study setting. Awareness to a large extent needs to be generated regarding the role of consanguinity as a risk factor for congenital anomalies. The importance of folic acid intake and early diagnosis and management of diabetes also needs to be emphasized. Prenatal diagnosis may be recommended to detect malformations early and plan management accordingly.

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